About Hybrid Lilies

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.Introduction

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word is derived from Latin hyba. In other words, meaning the “offspring of a tame sow and a wild boar”. Likewise, “child of a freeman and slave”, etc. The term entered into popular use in English in the 19th century. Further, examples have been found from the early 17th century.

Before we discuss hybrid lilies varieties, we must first ask what is a hybrid? Below you will find the answer. Afterwards, we explain just what is hybrid lilies varieties.

The Meaning of Hybrid

In biology and specifically genetics. Hybrid has several meanings. All referring to the offspring of sexual reproduction.
1. In general usage, hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous. In other words, offspring resulting from the mating of two distinctly homozygous individuals.
2. A genetic hybrid carries two different alleles of the same gene.
3. A structural hybrid results from the fusion of gametes. Therefore, differing structures in at least one chromosome. As a result of structural abnormalities.
4. A numerical hybrid results from the fusion of gametes. Likewise having different haploid numbers of chromosomes.
5. A permanent hybrid is a situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs. That is to say, all homozygous combinations are lethal.

Types of Hybrids

From a taxonomic perspective, hybrid refers to offspring. Therefore, resulting from the interbreeding between two animals or plants of different taxa.
1. Hybrids between different subspecies within a species (such as between the Bengal tiger and Siberian tiger). Consequently, known as intra-specific hybrids. Likewise, hybrids within the same genus ( between lions and tigers) are known as inter-specific hybrids or crosses. Hybrids between different genera (between sheep and goats) are known as intergeneric hybrids. Extremely rare interfamilial hybrids have been known to occur (known as the guineafowl hybrids). No inter-ordinal (between different orders) animal hybrids are known.

2. The second type of hybrid consists of crosses between populations. Breeds or cultivars within a single species. Therefore, this meaning is often used in plant and animal breeding. Where hybrids are commonly produced. And selected because they have desirable characteristics not found. Or inconsistently present in the parent individuals or populations. As a result, this flow of genetic material between populations or races is often called hybridization.

Depending on the parents, there are a number of different types of hybrids:

Single Cross Hybrids

Result: from the cross between two true breeding organisms. And produces an F1 generation called an F1 hybrid (F1 is short for Filial 1, meaning “first offspring”). So, the cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid that is heterozygous. Having two alleles, one contributed by each parent. And typically one is dominant and the other recessive. The F1 generation is phenotypically homogeneous. Therefore, producing offspring that are all similar to each other.

Double and Three Way Cross Hybrids.

Resulting from the cross between two different F1 hybrids.

Three-way cross hybrids result from the cross between one parent that is an F1 hybrid. And the other is from an inbred line

Triple cross hybrids result from the crossing of two different three-way cross hybrids.

Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in a population with another population. Likewise, crosses between organisms such as inter-specific hybrids. Or crosses between different races.

Inter-specific Hybrids

Inter-specific hybrids are bred by mating two species. Normally from within the same genus. Offspring display traits and characteristics of both parents. However, offspring of an inter-specific cross are often sterile. Therefore, hybrid sterility prevents the movement of genes from one species to the other. Keeping both species distinct. Sterility is attributed to the different number of chromosomes the two species have. For example, donkeys have 62 chromosomes, while horses have 64 chromosomes. And mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes. Mules, hinnies, and other normally sterile interspecific hybrids cannot produce viable gametes. Because the extra chromosome cannot make a homologous pair at meiosis, meiosis is disrupted, and viable sperm and eggs are not formed. However, fertility in female mules has been reported with a donkey as the father.

Most often other processes occurring in plants and animals keep gametic isolation and species distinction. Species often have different mating or courtship patterns or behaviors. The breeding seasons may be distinct. And even if mating does occur antigenic reactions to the sperm of other species prevent fertilization or embryo development. The Lonicera fly is the first known animal species that resulted from natural hybridization. Until the discovery of the Lonicera fly, this process was known to occur in nature only among plants

Genetic Composition

It is possible to predict the genetic composition of a back cross on average. However, it is not possible to accurately predict the composition of a particular back crossed individual. Due to random segregation of chromosomes. A species with two pairs of chromosomes, a twice back crossed individual would be predicted to contain 12.5% of one species’ genome (say, species A). However, it may,  still be a 50% hybrid. If the chromosomes from species A were lucky in two successive segregations. And meiotic crossovers happened near the telomeres. The chance of this is fairly high.  For instance, where the “two times two” comes about from two rounds of meiosis with two chromosomes. However, this probability declines markedly with chromosome number. And so the actual composition of a hybrid will be increasingly closer to the predicted composition.

Hybrid Names

Hybrids are often named by the portmanteau method, combining the names of the two parent species. For example, a zeedonk is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. Since the traits of hybrid offspring vary depending on which species was mother. And which was the father.  Furthermore, traditionally to use the father’s species as the first half of the portmanteau. For example, a tiger is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger, while a tigron is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion.

Hybrid Breeding

Hybrids between domesticated and wild animals are problematic. Breeders of domesticated species discourage crossbreeding with wild species. Unless deliberate decisions are made to incorporate a trait of a wild ancestor back into a given breed or strain. Wild populations of animals and plants have evolved naturally over millions of years. For example, through a process of natural selection in contrast to controlled selective breeding. Or artificial selection for desirable traits. Normally, these two methods of reproduction operate independently. However, intermediate forms of selective breeding, wherein animals or plants, bred by humans. But with an eye to adaptation to natural region-specific conditions. And an acceptance of natural selection to weed out undesirable traits, created many ancient breeds. Types now known as land races.

Domesticated and Wild Species Cross Breeding

Domesticated species live in or near areas that hold naturally evolved, region-specific wild ancestor species and subspecies. In some cases, a domesticated species of plant or animal may become feral, living wild. Other times, wild species will come into an area inhabited by domesticated species. Some of these situations lead to the creation of hybridized plants or animals. Therefore, a cross between the native species and domesticated ones.

This type of crossbreeding is termed genetic pollution. Certainly, there are concerns about preserving the genetic base of the wild species. Consequently, becoming a major concern. Hybridization is also a concern to breeders of purebred species. Particularly if the gene pool is small. And crossbreeding or hybridization threatens the genetic base of the purebred population.

Genetic pollution of a wild population means hybridized animals and plants can’t be genetically strong. Similarly, as naturally evolved region specific wild ancestors. Wildlife which can survive without human husbandry have high immunity to natural diseases. Likewise, the concern of purebred breeders with wildlife hybridizing a domesticated species is that it can coarsen or degrade the specific qualities of a breed developed for a specific purpose. Sometimes over many generations. Therefore, purebred breeders and wildlife biologists share a common interest. Preventing accidental hybridization.

Summary

The Meaning of Hybrid Lilies Varieties

Hybrid has several meanings. Consequently, referring to offspring of their sexual reproduction.
1. In general usage, hybrid is synonymous with heterozygous: any offspring resulting from the mating of two distinctly homozygous individuals
2. a genetic hybrid lily bulb carries two different alleles of the same gene
3. a structural hybrid lily bulb results from the fusion of gametes that have differing structure in at least one chromosome, as a result of structural abnormalities
4. a numerical hybrid lily bulb results from the fusion of gametes having different haploid numbers of chromosomes
5. a permanent hybrid lily bulb is a situation where only the heterozygous genotype occurs. Because all homozygous combinations are lethal.

Easy to Grow

Try a few Asiatic hybrid lily bulbs. And find out how easily they grow in pots or in the garden. Further, it’s a short step to becoming an aficionado. Try new kinds and types. Coupled with ‘spreading the word’. The diversity allows you to specialize. Equally important, rejoicing in the Oriental hybrid lilies varieties. Likewise finding the long-lived, naturalizing martagon hybrid lilies varieies. As a result, just the thing to bring magic to your garden.

Cultivars and Mixed Strains

Hybrid lilies varieties are offered as cultivars. And as mixed strains. So, you can buy a cloned cultivar like ‘Royal Sunset. And all its’ hybrid lily bulbs produce identical plants. Or hybrid lily bulbs of a strain such as Citronella which is a ‘grex’, a number of clones of the same or very similar parentage with many characteristics in common. However, not producing identical flowers. Commercial growers and dealers are happy to increase both classes of products. And to market them.

Reproduction and Life

Wild hybrid lily bulbs multiply mainly by seed. Therefore, this is a way for gardeners to increase their stocks. Hybrid lilies varieties have been in cultivation for well over fifty years. And are still worth growing. But, think of hybrid lilies varieties as plants that go through a natural cycle. Only replaced after awhile.

Likewise, growers of hybrid lilies realize some short-lived varieties. And they always have replacements coming along. Hybrid lilies varieties are unlikely to die out in this manner. But, we could keep happy by arranging turnovers. Then keep our outstanding hybrid lilies varieties. And also constantly upgrade the collection or change its balance.

Normally healthy plants, resistant to virus. As well as very cold hardy. Equally important, once planted they will survive in one place for many years.

History of Hybrid Lilies Varieties

Hybrid lilies varieties are always admired. Similarly, not always enjoyed the same soaring popularity as today. Considered the rich man’s play thing.

Explorers, collectors sent back hybrid lily bulbs and seeds from Asia to Europe. And America. They proved to be wonderful, new exciting plants. However, often being capricious hybrid lilies varieties. The hybrid lilies varieties lasted only a few years. Hybrid lilies varieties achieved a reputation for beauty. And difficulty. As well as during the years between the end of the nineteenth century. And the outbreak of the First World War.

References:

Wikipedia

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